see WARNINGS concerning serious cardiorespiratory events and possible paradoxical reactions. Fluctuations in vital signs were the most frequently seen findings following parenteral administration of midazolam in adults and included decreased tidal volume and/or respiratory rate decrease (23.3% of patients following intravenous and 10.8% of patients following intramuscular administration) and apnea (15.4% of patients following intravenous administration), as well as variations in blood pressure and pulse rate. The majority of serious adverse effects, particularly those associated with oxygenation and ventilation, have been reported when midazolam is administered with other medications capable of depressing the central nervous system. The incidence of such events is higher in patients undergoing procedures involving the airway without the protective effect of an endotracheal tube, (e.g., upper endoscopy and dental procedures).
The following additional adverse reactions were reported after intramuscular administration:
|headache (1.3%)||Local effects at intramuscular Injection site|
|muscle stiffness (0.3%)|
Administration of intramuscular midazolam to elderly and/or higher risk surgical patients has been associated with rare reports of death under circumstances compatible with cardiorespiratory depression. In most of these cases, the patients also received other central nervous system depressants capable of depressing respiration, especially narcotics (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
The following additional adverse reactions were reported subsequent to intravenous administration as a single sedative/anxiolytic/amnestic agent in adult patients:
|hiccoughs (3.9%)||Local effects at the intravenous site|
|nausea (2.8%)||tenderness (5.6%)|
|vomiting (2.6%)||pain during injection (5.0%)|
|coughing (1.3%)||redness (2.6%)|
|"oversedation" (1.6%)||induration (1.7%)|
|headache (1.5%)||phlebitis (0.4%)|
The following adverse events related to the use of intravenous midazolam in pediatric patients were reported in the medical literature: desaturation 4.6%, apnea 2.8%, hypotension 2.7%, paradoxical reactions 2.0%, hiccough 1.2%, seizure-like activity 1.1% and nystagmus 1.1%. The majority of airway-related events occurred in patients receiving other CNS depressing medications and in patients where midazolam was not used as a single sedating agent.
Other adverse experiences, observed mainly following intravenous injection as a single sedative/anxiolytic/amnesia agent and occurring at an incidence of <1.0% in adult and pediatric patients, are as follows:
Respiratory: Laryngospasm, bronchospasm, dyspnea, hyperventilation, wheezing, shallow respirations, airway obstruction, tachypnea
Cardiovascular: Bigeminy, premature ventricular contractions, vasovagal episode, bradycardia, tachycardia, nodal rhythm
Gastrointestinal: Acid taste, excessive salivation, retching
CNS/Neuromuscular: Retrograde amnesia, euphoria, hallucination, confusion, argumentativeness, nervousness, anxiety, grogginess, restlessness, emergence delirium or agitation, prolonged emergence from anesthesia, dreaming during emergence, sleep disturbance, insomnia, nightmares, athetoid movements, seizure-like activity, ataxia, dizziness, dysphoria, slurred speech, dysphonia, paresthesia
Special Senses: Blurred vision, diplopia, nystagmus, pinpoint pupils, cyclic movements of eyelids, visual disturbance, difficulty focusing eyes, ears blocked, loss of balance, light-headedness
Integumentary: Hive-like elevation at injection site, swelling or feeling of burning, warmth or coldness at injection site
Hypersensitivity: Allergic reactions including anaphylactoid reactions, hives, rash, pruritus
Miscellaneous: Yawning, lethargy, chills, weakness, toothache, faint feeling, hematoma