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PROTONIX® IV (pantoprazole sodium) Use in Specific Populations

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Available data from published observational studies did not demonstrate an association of major malformations or other adverse pregnancy outcomes with pantoprazole.

In animal reproduction studies, no evidence of adverse development outcomes was observed with pantoprazole. Reproduction studies have been performed in rats at intravenous doses up to 20 mg/kg/day (4 times the recommended human dose) and rabbits at intravenous doses up to 15 mg/kg/day (6 times the recommended human dose) with administration of pantoprazole during organogenesis in pregnant animals and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to pantoprazole in this study (see Data).

A pre-and post-natal development toxicity study in rats with additional endpoints to evaluate the effect on bone development was performed with pantoprazole sodium. Oral pantoprazole doses of 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg/day (approximately 1, 3, and 6 times the human dose of 40 mg/day) were administered to pregnant females from gestation day (GD) 6 through lactation day (LD) 21. Changes in bone morphology were observed in pups exposed to pantoprazole in utero and through milk during the period of lactation as well as by oral dosing from postnatal day (PND) 4 through PND 21 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. There were no drug-related findings in maternal animals. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk of fetal harm.

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in the clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Data

Human Data

Available data from published observational studies failed to demonstrate an association of adverse pregnancy-related outcomes and pantoprazole use. Methodological limitations of these observational studies cannot definitely establish or exclude any drug-associated risk during pregnancy. In a prospective study by the European Network of Teratology Information Services, outcomes from a group of 53 pregnant women administered median daily doses of 40 mg pantoprazole were compared to a control group of 868 pregnant women who did not take any proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). There was no difference in the rate of major malformations between women exposed to PPIs and the control group, corresponding to a Relative Risk (RR)=0.55, [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.08–3.95]. In a population-based retrospective cohort study covering all live births in Denmark from 1996 to 2008, there was no significant increase in major birth defects during analysis of first trimester exposure to pantoprazole in 549 live births. A meta-analysis that compared 1,530 pregnant women exposed to PPIs in at least the first trimester with 133,410 unexposed pregnant women showed no significant increases in risk for congenital malformations or spontaneous abortion with exposure to PPIs (for major malformations OR=1.12 ([95% CI 0.86–1.45] and for spontaneous abortions OR=1.29 [95% CI 0.84–1.97]).

Animal Data

Reproduction studies have been performed in rats at intravenous pantoprazole doses up to 20 mg/kg/day (4 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) and rabbits at intravenous doses up to 15 mg/kg/day (6 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) with administration of pantoprazole sodium during organogenesis in pregnant animals and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to pantoprazole.

A pre- and post-natal development toxicity study in rats with additional endpoints to evaluate the effect on bone development was performed with pantoprazole sodium. Oral pantoprazole doses of 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg/day (approximately 1, 3, and 6 times the human dose of 40 mg/day on a body surface area basis) were administered to pregnant females from gestation day (GD) 6 through lactation day (LD) 21. On postnatal day (PND 4) through PND 21, the pups were administered oral doses at 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg/day (approximately 1, 2.3, and 3.2 times the exposure (AUC) in humans at a dose of 40 mg). There were no drug-related findings in maternal animals. During the preweaning dosing phase (PND 4 to 21) of the pups, there were increased mortality and/or moribundity and decreased body weight and body weight gain at 5 mg/kg/day (approximately equal exposures (AUC) in humans receiving the 40 mg dose) and higher doses. On PND 21, decreased mean femur length and weight and changes in femur bone mass and geometry were observed in the offspring at 5 mg/kg/day (approximately equal exposures (AUC) in humans at the 40 mg dose) and higher doses. The femur findings included lower total area, bone mineral content and density, periosteal and endosteal circumference, and cross-sectional moment of inertia. There were no microscopic changes in the distal femur, proximal tibia, or stifle joints. Changes in bone parameters were partially reversible following a recovery period, with findings on PND 70 limited to lower femur metaphysis cortical/subcortical bone mineral density in female pups at 5 mg/kg/day (approximately equal exposures (AUC) in humans at the 40 mg dose) and higher doses.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

Pantoprazole has been detected in breast milk of a nursing mother after a single 40 mg oral dose of pantoprazole. There were no effects on the breastfed infant (see Data). There are no data on pantoprazole effects on milk production.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for PROTONIX I.V. and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from pantoprazole or from the underlying maternal condition.

Data

The breast milk of a 42-year-old woman receiving 40 mg of oral pantoprazole, at 10 months postpartum, was studied for 24 hours, to demonstrate low levels of pantoprazole present in the breast milk. Pantoprazole was detectable in milk only 2 and 4 hours after the dose with milk levels of approximately 36 mcg/L and 24 mcg/L, respectively. A milk-to-plasma ratio of 0.022 was observed at 2 hours after drug administration. Pantoprazole was not detectable (<10 mcg/L) in milk at 6, 8 and 24 hours after the dose. The relative dose to the infant was estimated to be 7.3 mcg of pantoprazole, which is equivalent to 0.14% of the weight-adjusted maternal dose. No adverse events in the infant were reported by the mother.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of PROTONIX I.V. have not been established in pediatric patients.

Animal Toxicity Data

In a pre- and post-natal development toxicity study in rats, the pups were administered oral doses of pantoprazole at 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg/day on postnatal day (PND 4) through PND 21, in addition to lactational exposure through milk. On PND 21, decreased mean femur length and weight and changes in femur bone mass and geometry were observed in the offspring at 5 mg/kg/day and higher doses. Changes in bone parameters were partially reversible following a recovery period [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

In neonatal/juvenile animals (rats and dogs) toxicities were similar to those observed in adult animals, including gastric alterations, decreases in red cell mass, increases in lipids, enzyme induction and hepatocellular hypertrophy. An increased incidence of eosinophilic chief cells in adult and neonatal/juvenile rats, and atrophy of chief cells in adult rats and in neonatal/juvenile dogs, was observed in the fundic mucosa of stomachs in repeated-dose studies. Full to partial recovery of these effects were noted in animals of both age groups following a recovery period.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Of 286 patients in clinical studies of intravenous pantoprazole sodium in patients with GERD and a history of EE, 86 (43%) were 65 years of age and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience with oral pantoprazole sodium has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

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